YouTube. "Rolling mill" redirects here. For mills that use rollers to crush grain or stone, see roller mill. Rolling visualization. (Click on image to view animation. ) In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is known as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is known as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes.  2] Roll stands holding pairs of rolls are grouped together into rolling mills that can quickly process metal, typically steel, into products such as structural steel ( I-beams, angle stock, channel stock) bar stock, and rails. Most steel mills have rolling mill divisions that convert the semi-finished casting products into finished products. There are many types of rolling processes, including ring rolling, roll bending, roll forming, profile rolling, and controlled rolling. Iron and steel [ edit] The invention of the rolling mill in Europe may be attributed to Leonardo da Vinci in his drawings.  The earliest rolling mills in crude form but the same basic principles were found in Middle East and South Asia as early as 600 BCE. Earliest rolling mills were slitting mills, which were introduced from what is now Belgium to England in 1590. These passed flat bars between rolls to form a plate of iron, which was then passed between grooved rolls (slitters) to produce rods of iron.  The first experiments at rolling iron for tinplate took place about 1670. In 1697, Major John Hanbury erected a mill at Pontypool to roll 'Pontypool plates'— blackplate. citation needed] Later this began to be rerolled and tinned to make tinplate. citation needed] The earlier production of plate iron in Europe had been in forges, not rolling mills. citation needed] The slitting mill was adapted to producing hoops (for barrels) and iron with a half-round or other sections by means that were the subject of two patents of c. 1679. citation needed] Some of the earliest literature on rolling mills can be traced back to Christopher Polhem in 1761 in Patriotista Testamente, where he mentions rolling mills for both plate and bar iron.  He also explains how rolling mills can save on time and labor because a rolling mill can produce 10 to 20 or more bars at the same time. A patent was granted to Thomas Blockley of England in 1759 for the polishing and rolling of metals. Another patent was granted in 1766 to Richard Ford of England for the first tandem mill.  A tandem mill is one in which the metal is rolled in successive stands; Ford's tandem mill was for hot rolling of wire rods. citation needed] Other metals [ edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December 2009) Rolling mills for lead seem to have existed by the late 17th century. Copper and brass were also rolled by the late 18th century. Modern rolling [ edit] Modern rolling practice can be attributed to the pioneering efforts of Henry Cort of Funtley Iron Mills, near Fareham, England. In 1783, a patent was issued to Henry Cort for his use of grooved rolls for rolling iron bars.  With this new design, mills were able to produce 15 times more output per day than with a hammer.  Although Cort was not the first to use grooved rolls, he was the first to combine the use of many of the best features of various ironmaking and shaping processes known at the time. Thus modern writers have called him "father of modern rolling. " The first rail rolling mill was established by John Birkenshaw in 1820, where he produced fish bellied wrought iron rails in lengths of 15 to 18 feet.  With the advancement of technology in rolling mills, the size of rolling mills grew rapidly along with the size of the products being rolled. One example of this was at The Great Exhibition in 1851, where a plate 20 feet long, 3 ½ feet wide, and 7/16 of an inch thick, and weighing 1, 125 pounds, was exhibited by the Consett Iron Company.  Further evolution of the rolling mill came with the introduction of three-high mills in 1853 used for rolling heavy sections. citation needed] Hot and cold rolling [ edit] Hot rolling [ edit] A coil of hot-rolled steel Hot rolling is a metalworking process that occurs above the recrystallization temperature of the material. After the grains deform during processing, they recrystallize, which maintains an equiaxed microstructure and prevents the metal from work hardening. The starting material is usually large pieces of metal, like semi-finished casting products, such as slabs, blooms, and billets. If these products came from a continuous casting operation the products are usually fed directly into the rolling mills at the proper temperature. In smaller operations, the material starts at room temperature and must be heated. This is done in a gas- or oil-fired soaking pit for larger workpieces; for smaller workpieces, induction heating is used. As the material is worked, the temperature must be monitored to make sure it remains above the recrystallization temperature. To maintain a safety factor a finishing temperature is defined above the recrystallization temperature; this is usually 50 to 100 C (90 to 180 F) above the recrystallization temperature. If the temperature does drop below this temperature the material must be re-heated before more hot rolling.  Soaking pits used to heat steel ingots before rolling. Hot-rolled metals generally have little directionality in their mechanical properties and deformation induced residual stresses. However, in certain instances non-metallic inclusions will impart some directionality and workpieces less than 20 mm (0. 79 in) thick often have some directional properties. Also, non-uniform cooling will induce a lot of residual stresses, which usually occurs in shapes that have a non-uniform cross-section, such as I-beams. While the finished product is of good quality, the surface is covered in mill scale, which is an oxide that forms at high temperatures. It is usually removed via pickling or the smooth clean surface (SCS) process, which reveals a smooth surface.  Dimensional tolerances are usually 2 to 5% of the overall dimension.  Hot-rolled mild steel seems to have a wider tolerance for amount of included carbon than does cold-rolled steel, and is, therefore, more difficult for a blacksmith to use. Also for similar metals, hot-rolled products seem to be less costly than cold-rolled ones.  Hot rolling is used mainly to produce sheet metal or simple cross-sections, such as rail tracks. Other typical uses for hot-rolled metal  Truck frames Automotive clutch plates, wheels and wheel rims Pipes and tubes Water heaters Agricultural equipment Strappings Stampings Compressor shells Metal buildings Railroad hopper cars and railcar components Doors and shelving Discs Guard rails for streets and highways Shape rolling design [ edit] Rolling mills are often divided into roughing, intermediate and finishing rolling cages. During shape rolling, an initial billet (round or square) with edge of diameter typically ranging between 100–140 mm is continuously deformed to produce a certain finished product with smaller cross section dimension and geometry. Different sequences can be adopted to produce a certain final product starting from a given billet. However, since each rolling mill is significantly expensive (up to 2 million euros) a typical requirement is to contract the number or rolling passes. Different approaches have been achieved including empirical knowledge, employment of numerical models, and Artificial Intelligence techniques. Lambiase et al.  15] validated a finite element model (FE) for predicting the final shape of a rolled bar in round-flat pass. one of the major concern when designing rolling mills is to reduce the number of passes; a possible solution to such requirement is represented by the slit pass also called split pass which divided an incoming bar in two or more subpart thus virtually increasing the cross section reduction ratio per pass as reported by Lambiase.  Another solution for reducing the number of passes in the rolling mills is the employment of automated systems for Roll Pass Design as that proposed by Lambiase and Langella.  subsequently, Lambiase further developed an Automated System based on Artificial Intelligence and particularly an integrated system including an inferential engine based on Genetic Algorithms a knowledge database based on an Artificial Neural Network trained by a parametric Finite element model and to optimize and automatically design rolling mills.  Cold rolling [ edit] Cold rolling occurs with the metal below its recrystallization temperature (usually at room temperature) which increases the strength via strain hardening up to 20. It also improves the surface finish and holds tighter tolerances. Commonly cold-rolled products include sheets, strips, bars, and rods; these products are usually smaller than the same products that are hot rolled. Because of the smaller size of the workpieces and their greater strength, as compared to hot rolled stock, four-high or cluster mills are used.  Cold rolling cannot reduce the thickness of a workpiece as much as hot rolling in a single pass. Cold-rolled sheets and strips come in various conditions: full-hard, half-hard, quarter-hard, and skin-rolled. Full-hard rolling reduces the thickness by 50% while the others involve less of a reduction. Cold rolled steel is then annealed to induce ductility in the cold rolled steel which is simply known as a Cold Rolled and Close Annealed. Skin-rolling, also known as a skin-pass, involves the least amount of reduction: 0. 5–1. It is used to produce a smooth surface, a uniform thickness, and reduce the yield point phenomenon (by preventing Lüders bands from forming in later processing. It locks dislocations at the surface and thereby reduces the possibility of formation of Lüders bands. To avoid the formation of Lüders bands it is necessary to create substantial density of unpinned dislocations in ferrite matrix. It is also used to break up the spangles in galvanized steel. Skin-rolled stock is usually used in subsequent cold-working processes where good ductility is required. Other shapes can be cold-rolled if the cross-section is relatively uniform and the transverse dimension is relatively small. Cold rolling shapes requires a series of shaping operations, usually along the lines of sizing, breakdown, roughing, semi-roughing, semi-finishing, and finishing. If processed by a blacksmith, the smoother, more consistent, and lower levels of carbon encapsulated in the steel makes it easier to process, but at the cost of being more expensive.  Typical uses for cold-rolled steel include metal furniture, desks, filing cabinets, tables, chairs, motorcycle exhaust pipes, computer cabinets and hardware, home appliances and components, shelving, lighting fixtures, hinges, tubing, steel drums, lawn mowers, electronic cabinetry, water heaters, metal containers, fan blades, frying pans, wall and ceiling mount kits, and a variety of construction-related products.  Processes [ edit] Roll bending [ edit] Roll bending produces a cylindrical shaped product from plate or steel metals.  Roll forming [ edit] Roll forming, roll bending or plate rolling is a continuous bending operation in which a long strip of metal (typically coiled steel) is passed through consecutive sets of rolls, or stands, each performing only an incremental part of the bend, until the desired cross-section profile is obtained. Roll forming is ideal for producing parts with long lengths or in large quantities. There are 3 main processes: 4 rollers, 3 rollers and 2 rollers, each of which has as different advantages according to the desired specifications of the output plate. Flat rolling [ edit] Flat rolling is the most basic form of rolling with the starting and ending material having a rectangular cross-section. The material is fed in between two rollers, called working rolls, that rotate in opposite directions. The gap between the two rolls is less than the thickness of the starting material, which causes it to deform. The decrease in material thickness causes the material to elongate. The friction at the interface between the material and the rolls causes the material to be pushed through. The amount of deformation possible in a single pass is limited by the friction between the rolls; if the change in thickness is too great the rolls just slip over the material and do not draw it in.  The final product is either sheet or plate, with the former being less than 6 mm (0. 24 in) thick and the latter greater than; however, heavy plates tend to be formed using a press, which is termed forging, rather than rolling. citation needed] Often the rolls are heated to assist in the workability of the metal. Lubrication is often used to keep the workpiece from sticking to the rolls. citation needed] To fine-tune the process, the speed of the rolls and the temperature of the rollers are adjusted.  h is sheet metal with a thickness less than 200 μm (0. 0079 in. citation needed] The rolling is done in a cluster mill because the small thickness requires a small diameter rolls.  To reduce the need for small rolls pack rolling is used, which rolls multiple sheets together to increase the effective starting thickness. As the foil sheets come through the rollers, they are trimmed and slitted with circular or razor-like knives. Trimming refers to the edges of the foil, while slitting involves cutting it into several sheets.  Aluminum foil is the most commonly produced product via pack rolling. This is evident from the two different surface finishes; the shiny side is on the roll side and the dull side is against the other sheet of foil.  Ring rolling [ edit] A schematic of ring rolling Ring rolling is a specialized type of hot rolling that increases the diameter of a ring. The starting material is a thick-walled ring. This workpiece is placed between two rolls, an inner idler roll and a driven roll, which presses the ring from the outside. As the rolling occurs the wall thickness decreases as the diameter increases. The rolls may be shaped to form various cross-sectional shapes. The resulting grain structure is circumferential, which gives better mechanical properties. Diameters can be as large as 8 m (26 ft) and face heights as tall as 2 m (79 in. Common applications include railway tyres, bearings, gears, rockets, turbines, airplanes, pipes, and pressure vessels.  Structural shape rolling [ edit] Cross-sections of continuously rolled structural shapes, showing the change induced by each rolling mill. Controlled rolling [ edit] Controlled rolling is a type of thermomechanical processing which integrates controlled deformation and heat treating. The heat which brings the workpiece above the recrystallization temperature is also used to perform the heat treatments so that any subsequent heat treating is unnecessary. Types of heat treatments include the production of a fine grain structure; controlling the nature, size, and distribution of various transformation products (such as ferrite, austenite, pearlite, bainite, and martensite in steel) inducing precipitation hardening; and, controlling the toughness. In order to achieve this the entire process must be closely monitored and controlled. Common variables in controlled rolling include the starting material composition and structure, deformation levels, temperatures at various stages, and cool-down conditions. The benefits of controlled rolling include better mechanical properties and energy savings.  Forge rolling [ edit] Forge rolling is a longitudinal rolling process to reduce the cross-sectional area of heated bars or billets by leading them between two contrary rotating roll segments. The process is mainly used to provide optimized material distribution for subsequent die forging processes. Owing to this a better material utilization, lower process forces and better surface quality of parts can be achieved in die forging processes.  Basically any forgeable metal can also be forge-rolled. Forge rolling is mainly used to preform long-scaled billets through targeted mass distribution for parts such as crankshafts, connection rods, steering knuckles and vehicle axles. Narrowest manufacturing tolerances can only partially be achieved by forge rolling. This is the main reason why forge rolling is rarely used for finishing, but mainly for preforming.  Characteristics of forge rolling: 26] high productivity and high material utilization good surface quality of forge-rolled workpieces extended tool life-time small tools and low tool costs improved mechanical properties due to optimized grain flow compared to exclusively die forged workpieces Mills [ edit] A rolling mill, also known as a reduction mill or mill, has a common construction independent of the specific type of rolling being performed: 27] Rolling mill for cold rolling metal sheet like this piece of brass sheet Work rolls Backup rolls - are intended to provide rigid support required by the working rolls to prevent bending under the rolling load Rolling balance system - to ensure that the upper work and back up rolls are maintained in proper position relative to lower rolls Roll changing devices - use of an overhead crane and a unit designed to attach to the neck of the roll to be removed from or inserted into the mill. Mill protection devices - to ensure that forces applied to the backup roll chocks are not of such a magnitude to fracture the roll necks or damage the mill housing Roll cooling and lubrication systems Pinions - gears to divide power between the two spindles, rotating them at the same speed but in different directions Gearing - to establish desired rolling speed Drive motors - rolling narrow foil product to thousands of horsepower Electrical controls - constant and variable voltages applied to the motors Coilers and uncoilers - to unroll and roll up coils of metal Slabs are the feed material for hot strip mills or plate mills and blooms are rolled to billets in a billet mill or large sections in a structural mill. The output from a strip mill is coiled and, subsequently, used as the feed for a cold rolling mill or used directly by fabricators. Billets, for re-rolling, are subsequently rolled in either a merchant, bar or rod mill. Merchant or bar mills produce a variety of shaped products such as angles, channels, beams, rounds (long or coiled) and hexagons. Configurations [ edit] Various rolling configurations. Key: A. 2-high B. 3-high C. 4-high D. 6-high E. 12-high cluster & F. 20-high Sendzimir Mill cluster Mills are designed in different types of configurations, with the most basic being a two-high non-reversing, which means there are two rolls that only turn in one direction. The two-high reversing mill has rolls that can rotate in both directions, but the disadvantage is that the rolls must be stopped, reversed, and then brought back up to rolling speed between each pass. To resolve this, the three-high mill was invented, which uses three rolls that rotate in one direction; the metal is fed through two of the rolls and then returned through the other pair. The disadvantage to this system is the workpiece must be lifted and lowered using an elevator. All of these mills are usually used for primary rolling and the roll diameters range from 60 to 140 cm (24 to 55 in. 9] To minimize the roll diameter a four-high or cluster mill is used. A small roll diameter is advantageous because less roll is in contact with the material, which results in a lower force and power requirement. The problem with a small roll is a reduction of stiffness, which is overcome using backup rolls. These backup rolls are larger and contact the back side of the smaller rolls. A four-high mill has four rolls, two small and two large. A cluster mill has more than 4 rolls, usually in three tiers. These types of mills are commonly used to hot roll wide plates, most cold rolling applications, and to roll foils.  Historically mills were classified by the product produced: 28] Blooming, cogging and slabbing mills, being the preparatory mills to rolling finished rails, shapes or plates, respectively. If reversing, they are from 34 to 48 inches in diameter, and if three-high, from 28 to 42 inches in diameter. Billet mills, three-high, rolls from 24 to 32 inches in diameter, used for the further reduction of blooms down to 1. 5x1. 5-inch billets, being the nubpreparatory mills for the bar and rod Beam mills, three-high, rolls from 28 to 36 inches in diameter, for the production of heavy beams and channels 12 inches and over. Rail mills with rolls from 26 to 40 inches in diameter. Shape mills with rolls from 20 to 26 inches in diameter, for smaller sizes of beams and channels and other structural shapes. Merchant bar mills with rolls from 16 to 20 inches in diameter. Small merchant bar mills with finishing rolls from 8 to 16 inches in diameter, generally arranged with a larger size roughing stand. Rod and wire mills with finishing rolls from 8 to 12 inches in diameter, always arranged with larger size roughing stands. Hoop and cotton tie mills, similar to small merchant bar mills. Armour plate mills with rolls from 44 to 50 inches in diameter and 140 to 180-inch body. Plate mills with rolls from 28 to 44 inches in diameter. Sheet mills with rolls from 20 to 32 inches in diameter. Universal mills for the production of square-edged or so-called universal plates and various wide flanged shapes by a system of vertical and horizontal rolls. Tandem mill [ edit] A tandem mill is a special type of modern rolling mill where rolling is done in one pass. In a traditional rolling mill rolling is done in several passes, but in tandem mill there are several stands. 2 stands) and reductions take place successively. The number of stands ranges from 2 to 18. Tandem mills can be either of hot or cold rolling mill types. Defects [ edit] In hot rolling, if the temperature of the workpiece is not uniform the flow of the material will occur more in the warmer parts and less in the cooler. If the temperature difference is great enough cracking and tearing can occur.  Flatness and shape [ edit] In a flat metal workpiece, the flatness is a descriptive attribute characterizing the extent of the geometric deviation from a reference plane. The deviation from complete flatness is the direct result of the workpiece relaxation after hot or cold rolling, due to the internal stress pattern caused by the non-uniform transversal compressive action of the rolls and the uneven geometrical properties of the entry material. The transverse distribution of differential strain/elongation-induced stress with respect to the material's average applied stress is commonly referenced to as shape. Due to the strict relationship between shape and flatness, these terms can be used in an interchangeable manner. In the case of metal strips and sheets, the flatness reflects the differential fiber elongation across the width of the workpiece. This property must be subject to an accurate feedback-based control in order to guarantee the machinability of the metal sheets in the final transformation processes. Some technological details about the feedback control of flatness are given in.  Profile [ edit] Profile is made up of the measurements of crown and wedge. Crown is the thickness in the center as compared to the average thickness at the edges of the workpiece. Wedge is a measure of the thickness at one edge as opposed to the other edge. Both may be expressed as absolute measurements or as relative measurements. For instance, one could have 2 mil of crown (the center of the workpiece is 2 mil thicker than the edges) or one could have 2% crown (the center of the workpiece is 2% thicker than the edges. It is typically desirable to have some crown in the workpiece as this will cause the workpiece to tend to pull to the center of the mill, and thus will run with higher stability. Flatness [ edit] Maintaining a uniform gap between the rolls is difficult because the rolls deflect under the load required to deform the workpiece. The deflection causes the workpiece to be thinner on the edges and thicker in the middle. This can be overcome by using a crowned roller (parabolic crown) however the crowned roller will only compensate for one set of conditions, specifically the material, temperature, and amount of deformation.  Other methods of compensating for roll deformation include continual varying crown (CVC) pair cross rolling, and work roll bending. CVC was developed by SMS-Siemag AG and involves grinding a third order polynomial curve into the work rolls and then shifting the work rolls laterally, equally, and opposite to each other. The effect is that the rolls will have a gap between them that is parabolic in shape, and will vary with lateral shift, thus allowing for control of the crown of the rolls dynamically. Pair cross rolling involves using either flat or parabolically crowned rolls, but shifting the ends at an angle so that the gap between the edges of the rolls will increase or decrease, thus allowing for dynamic crown control. Work roll bending involves using hydraulic cylinders at the ends of the rolls to counteract roll deflection. Another way to overcome deflection issues is by decreasing the load on the rolls, which can be done by applying a longitudinal force; this is essentially drawing. Other method of decreasing roll deflection include increasing the elastic modulus of the roll material and adding back-up supports to the rolls.  The different classifications for flatness defects are: Symmetrical edge wave - the edges on both sides of the workpiece are "wavy" due to the material at the edges being longer than the material in the center. Asymmetrical edge wave - one edge is "wavy" due to the material at one side being longer than the other side. Center buckle - The center of the strip is "wavy" due to the strip in the center being longer than the strip at the edges. Quarter buckle - This is a rare defect where the fibers are elongated in the quarter regions (the portion of the strip between the center and the edge. This is normally attributed to using excessive roll bending force since the bending force may not compensate for the roll deflection across the entire length of the roll. It is important to note that one could have a flatness defect even with the workpiece having the same thickness across the width. Also, one could have fairly high crown or wedge, but still produce material that is flat. In order to produce flat material, the material must be reduced by the same percentage across the width. This is important because mass flow of the material must be preserved, and the more a material is reduced, the more it is elongated. If a material is elongated in the same manner across the width, then the flatness coming into the mill will be preserved at the exit of the mill. Draught [ edit] The difference between the thickness of initial and rolled metal piece is called Draught. Thus if is initial thickness and is final thickness, then the draught is given by The maximum draught that can be achieved via rollers of radius with coefficient of static friction between the roller and the metal surface is given by This is the case when the frictional force on the metal from inlet contact matches the negative force from the exit contact. Surface defect types [ edit] There are six types of surface defects: 30] Lap This type of defect occurs when a corner or fin is folded over and rolled but not welded into the metal.  They appear as seams across the surface of the metal. Mill-shearing These defects occur as a feather-like lap. Rolled-in scale This occurs when mill scale is rolled into metal. Scabs These are long patches of loose metal that have been rolled into the surface of the metal. Seams They are open, broken lines that run along the length of the metal and caused by the presence of scale as well as due to pass roughness of Roughing mill. Slivers Prominent surface ruptures. Surface defect remediation [ edit] Many surface defects can be scarfed off the surface of semi-finished rolled products before further rolling. Methods of scarfing have included hand-chipping with chisels (18th and 19th centuries) powered chipping and grinding with air chisels and grinders; burning with an oxy-fuel torch, whose gas pressure blows away the metal or slag melted by the flame; 32] and laser scarfing. See also [ edit] Bernard Lauth, invented and patented the process for cold rolling of iron John B. Tytus, inventor of the first practical wide-strip continuous rolling process for manufacturing steel Tadeusz Sendzimir, whose name has been given to revolutionary methods of processing steel and metals Electron beam texturing, used to apply roughness to the surface of rolling mill cylinders Drawer slides roll forming machine Calender Notes [ edit] a b Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, p. 384. ^ a b Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, p. 408. ^ Archived copy. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013. CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link) Landes, David. S. (1969. The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge, New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-521-09418-4. ^ Swank, James M., History of the Manufacturers of Iron in All Ages, Published by Burt Franklin 1892, p. 91 ^ Roberts 1978, p. 5. ^ R. A. Mott (ed. P. Singer) Henry Cort: the great finer (Metals Society, London 1983) 31-36; English patents, nos. 1351 and 1420. ^ a b c Roberts 1978, p. 6. ^ a b c d e Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, p. 385. ^ a b Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, p. 387. ^ a b c d Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, p. 388. ^ Catalog. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2018. ^ Hot Rolled Steel. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. ^ Capece Minutolo, F. Durante, M. Lambiase, F. Langella, A. (2005. Dimensional Analysis in Steel Rod Rolling for Different Types of Grooves. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 14 (3) 373–377. doi: 10. 1361/01599490523913. ^ Capece Minutolo, F. (2006. Dimensional analysis of a new type of groove for steel rebar rolling. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 175 (1–3) 69–76. 1016/atprotec. 2005. 04. 042. ^ Lambiase, F. (2014. Prediction of geometrical profile in slit rolling pass. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 71 (5–8) 1285–1293. 1007/s00170-013-5584-7. ^ Lambiase, F. (2009. Automated Procedure for Roll Pass Design. 18 (3) 263–272. 1007/s11665-008-9289-2. ^ Lambiase, F. (2013. Optimization of shape rolling sequences by integrated artificial intelligent techniques. 68 (1–4) 443–452. 1007/s00170-013-4742-2. ^ Hot Rolled vs Cold Rolled Steel. Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018. ^ Cold Rolled Steel. Retrieved 31 March 2014. ^ Todd, Robert H. Allen, Dell K. Alting, Leo (1994) Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide, Industrial Press Inc., pp. 300–304, ISBN 978-0-8311-3049-7. ^ a b "Aluminum Foil Questions and Answers. eNotes. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2018. ^ Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, p. 386 ^ Behrens, B. -A. Final Report Summary - DEVAPRO (Development of a variable warm forging process chain. Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine 2 September 2015. ^ Behrens, B. Forge Rolling. In: CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering. ^ ASM International: ASM Handbook Metalworking: bulk forming. ASM International, 2005 ^ Roberts 1978, p. 64. ^ Kindl, F. H. (1913) The Rolling Mill Industry, Penton Publishing, pp. 13–19. ^ Pin, G; Francesconi, V; Cuzzola, FA; Parisini, T (2012. Adaptive task-space metal strip-flatness control in cold multi-roll mill stands. Journal of Process Control. 23 (2) 108–119. 1016/rocont. 2012. 08. 008. ^ Definition of standard mill terms, archived from the original on 4 March 2010, retrieved 4 March 2010. ^ Pohanish, Richard P. Pohanish, Dick (2003) Glossary of Metalworking Terms, ISBN 9780831131289, archived from the original on 21 July 2011, retrieved 12 December 2010. ^ Roberts 1983, pp. 158–162 Bibliography [ edit] Degarmo, E. Paul; Black, J T. Kohser, Ronald A. (2003) Materials and Processes in Manufacturing (9th ed. Wiley, ISBN 978-0-471-65653-1. Roberts, William L. (1978) Cold Rolling of Steel, Marcel Dekker, ISBN 978-0-8247-6780-8. Roberts, William L. (1983) Hot Rolling of Steel, Marcel Dekker, ISBN 978-0-8247-1345-4. Doege, E. Behrens, B. Handbuch Umformtechnik: Grundlagen, Technologien, Maschinen (in German) 2nd Edition, Springer Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-04248-5 Further reading [ edit] Ginzburg, Vladimir B. Ballas, Robert (2000) Flat Rolling Fundamentals, CRC Press, ISBN 978-0-8247-8894-0. Lee, Youngseog (2004) Rod and bar rolling, CRC Press, ISBN 978-0-8247-5649-9. Swank, James M. (1965) History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages (2nd ed. Ayer Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8337-3463-1. Reed-Hill, Robert, et al. "Physical Metallurgy Principles" 3rd Edition, PWS publishing, Boston, 1991. ISBN 978-0-534-92173-6. Callister Jr., William D. Materials Science and Engineering - an Introduction" 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2003. ISBN 0-471-13576-3 Suhel khan pathan, IJSRDV5I70206 "Three Roller Rolling Machine" IJSRD/Vol 5/Issue 07/2017/270. ISSN 2321-0613 External links [ edit] History of Rolling Mills Rolling Mills related prodect.
Rolling loud la. Rolling stones songs. Rolling stones beast of burden. Its a new year, a new decade and were thrilled to announce a brand new Rolling Stones NO FILTER 2020 USA/CA tour! 🎸 🎉 🎸 There will be a special fan presale starting on Wednesday Feb 12 at 10am (local time) through to Thursday Feb 13 at 10pm (local time. sign up here to get access. MAY 2020 08 - SDCCU Stadium SAN DIEGO, CA 12 - BC Place VANCOUVER, BC 16 - U. S. Bank Stadium MINNEAPOLIS, MN 20 - Nissan Stadium NASHVILLE, TN 24 - Circuit of The Americas AUSTIN, TX 29 - Cotton Bowl Stadium DALLAS, TX JUNE 2020 06 - New Era Field BUFFALO, NY 10 - Ford Field DETROIT, MI 14 - Cardinal Stadium LOUISVILLE, KY 19 - FirstEnergy Stadium CLEVELAND, OH 23 - Heinz Field PITTSBURGH, PA 27 - The Dome at Americas Center ST. LOUIS, MO JULY 2020 01 - Bank of America Stadium CHARLOTTE, NC 05 - Raymond James Stadium TAMPA, FL 09 - Mercedes-Benz Stadium ATLANTA, GA Tickets go on general sale Friday February 14 at 10am (local time) ❤️ We have just launched a brand new website find out more about the tour at.
Rolling. E-Tard: Hey, Libra... rolling yet? Libra: Hell yea, baby! That pill kicked in nasty! Hey, did I ever tell you that I love you. Guy 1: Man that comedy club is great! Last time I was there I was laughing my ass off! Guy 2: Yeah man, I was rolling! When you get messed up off ecstasy. This is somewhat like less physical orgasms, just extreme bliss and true euphoria. Touching people feels so good, and dancing id effortless and uninhibited. It's not exactly like losing all control, you still have your morals, you just feel less obligated to follow them. Rolling is the high you get from droppin` eating/swallowing) a baum (or ecstasy. About 30min to an hour after droppin` a baum you will start to feel this relaxed, flowing body high. it'll start off soft, and then get heavier. The intesity of your high will rise (which is called peaking) and then drop a bit. Then it'll get a lil' higher, and drop a bit again. That "rolling" feeling will continue untill the high is done (between 5-8 hours. by hosef June 06, 2006.
Rolling hills covenant church. The animation illustrates rolling motion of a wheel as a superposition of two motions: translation with respect to the surface, and rotation around its own axis. Rolling is a type of motion that combines rotation (commonly, of an axially symmetric object) and translation of that object with respect to a surface (either one or the other moves) such that, if ideal conditions exist, the two are in contact with each other without sliding. Rolling where there is no sliding is referred to as pure rolling. By definition, there is no sliding when there is a frame of reference in which all points of contact on the rolling object have the same velocity as their counterparts on the surface on which the object rolls; in particular, for a frame of reference in which the rolling plane is at rest (see animation) the instantaneous velocity of all the points of contact (e. g., a generating line segment of a cylinder) of the rolling object is zero. In practice, due to small deformations near the contact area, some sliding and energy dissipation occurs. Nevertheless, the resulting rolling resistance is much lower than sliding friction, and thus, rolling objects, typically require much less energy to be moved than sliding ones. As a result, such objects will more easily move, if they experience a force with a component along the surface, for instance gravity on a tilted surface, wind, pushing, pulling, or torque from an engine. Unlike cylindrical axially symmetric objects, the rolling motion of a cone is such that while rolling on a flat surface, its center of gravity performs a circular motion, rather than a linear motion. Rolling objects are not necessarily axially-symmetrical. Two well known non-axially-symmetrical rollers are the Reuleaux triangle and the Meissner bodies. The oloid and the sphericon are members of a special family of developable rollers that develop their entire surface when rolling down a flat plane. Objects with corners, such as dice, roll by successive rotations about the edge or corner which is in contact with the surface. The construction of a specific surface allows even a perfect square wheel to roll with its centroid at constant height above a reference plane. Applications [ edit] Most land vehicles use wheels and therefore rolling for displacement. Slip should be kept to a minimum (approximating pure rolling) otherwise loss of control and an accident may result. This may happen when the road is covered in snow, sand, or oil, when taking a turn at high speed or attempting to brake or accelerate suddenly. One of the most practical applications of rolling objects is the use of rolling-element bearings, such as ball bearings, in rotating devices. Made of metal, the rolling elements are usually encased between two rings that can rotate independently of each other. In most mechanisms, the inner ring is attached to a stationary shaft (or axle. Thus, while the inner ring is stationary, the outer ring is free to move with very little friction. This is the basis for which almost all motors (such as those found in ceiling fans, cars, drills, etc. rely on to operate. The amount of friction on the mechanism's parts depends on the quality of the ball bearings and how much lubrication is in the mechanism. Rolling objects are also frequently used as tools for transportation. One of the most basic ways is by placing a (usually flat) object on a series of lined-up rollers, or wheels. The object on the wheels can be moved along them in a straight line, as long as the wheels are continuously replaced in the front (see history of bearings. This method of primitive transportation is efficient when no other machinery is available. Today, the most practical application of objects on wheels are cars, trains, and other human transportation vehicles. Physics of simple rolling [ edit] The velocities of the points of a rolling object are equal to those of rotation around the point of contact. The simplest case of rolling is that of rolling without slipping along a flat surface with its axis parallel to the surface (or equivalently: perpendicular to the surface normal. The trajectory of any point is a trochoid; in particular, the trajectory of any point in the object axis is a line, while the trajectory of any point in the object rim is a cycloid. The velocity of any point in the rolling object is given by, where is the displacement between the particle and the rolling object's contact point (or line) with the surface, and is the angular velocity vector. Thus, despite that rolling is different from rotation around a fixed axis, the instantaneous velocity of all particles of the rolling object is the same as if it was rotating around an axis that passes through the point of contact with the same angular velocity. Any point in the rolling object farther from the axis than the point of contact will temporarily move opposite to the direction of the overall motion when it is below the level of the rolling surface (for example, any point in the part of the flange of a train wheel that is below the rail. Energy [ edit] Since kinetic energy is entirely a function of an object mass and velocity, the above result may be used with the parallel axis theorem to obtain the kinetic energy associated with simple rolling Derivation Let be the distance between the center of mass and the point of contact; when the surface is flat, this is the radius of the object around its widest cross section. Since the center of mass has an immediate velocity as if it was rotating around the point of contact, its velocity is. Due to symmetry, the object center of mass is a point in its axis. Let be inertia of pure rotation around the axis of symmetry, then according to the parallel axis theorem, the rotational inertia associated with rolling is (same as the rotational inertia of pure rotation around the point of contact. Using the general formula for kinetic energy of rotation, we have: Forces and acceleration [ edit] Differentiating the relation between linear and angular velocity, with respect to time gives a formula relating linear and angular acceleration. Applying Newton's second law: It follows that to accelerate the object, both a net force and a torque are required. When external force with no torque acts on the rolling object‐surface system, there will be a tangential force at the point of contact between the surface and rolling object that provides the required torque as long as the motion is pure rolling; this force is usually static friction, for example, between the road and a wheel or between a bowling lane and a bowling ball. When static friction isn't enough, the friction becomes dynamic friction and slipping happens. The tangential force is opposite in direction to the external force, and therefore partially cancels it. The resulting net force and acceleration are: Assume that the object experiences an external force which exerts no torque (it has 0 moment arm) static friction at the point of contact. provides the torque and the other forces involved cancel. is tangential to the object and surface at the point of contact and opposite in direction to. Using the sign convention by which this force is positive, the net force is: Because there is no slip, holds. Substituting and for the linear and rotational version of Newton's second law, then solving for: Expanding in: The last equality is the first formula for; using it together with Newton's second law, then reducing, the formula for is obtained: The radius of gyration can be incorporated in the first formula for as follows: Substituting the latest equality above in the first formula for the second formula for it: has dimension of mass, and it is the mass that would have a rotational inertia at distance from an axis of rotation. Therefore, the term may be thought of as the mass with linear inertia equivalent to the rolling object rotational inertia (around its center of mass. The action of the external force upon an object in simple rotation may be conceptualized as accelerating the sum of the real mass and the virtual mass that represents the rotational inertia, which is. Since the work done by the external force is split between overcoming the translational and rotational inertia, the external force results in a smaller net force by the dimensionless multiplicative factor where represents the ratio of the aforesaid virtual mass to the object actual mass and it is equal to where is the radius of gyration corresponding to the object rotational inertia in pure rotation (not the rotational inertia in pure rolling. The square power is due to the facte rotational inertia of a point mass varies proportionally to the square of its distance to the axis. Four objects in pure rolling racing down a plane with no air drag. From back to front: spherical shell (red) solid sphere (orange) cylindrical ring (green) and solid cylinder (blue. The time to reach the finishing line is entirely a function of the object mass distribution, slope and gravitational acceleration. See details, animated GIF version. In the specific case of an object rolling in an inclined plane which experiences only static friction, normal force and its own weight. air drag is absent) the acceleration in the direction of rolling down the slope is: Assuming that the object is placed so as to roll downward in the direction of the inclined plane (and not partially sideways) the weight can be decomposed in a component in the direction of rolling and a component perpendicular to the inclined plane. Only the first force component makes the object roll, the second is balanced by the contact force, but it does not form an action‐reaction pair with it (just as an object in rest on a table. Therefore, for this analysis, only the first component is considered, thus: In the last equality the denominator is the same as in the formula for force, but the factor disappears because its instance in the force of gravity cancels with its instance due to Newton's third law. is specific to the object shape and mass distribution, it does not depend on scale or density. However, it will vary if the object is made to roll with different radiuses; for instance, it varies between a train wheel set rolling normally (by its tire) and by its axle. It follows that given a reference rolling object, another object bigger or with different density will roll with the same acceleration. This behavior is the same as that of an object in free fall or an object sliding without friction (instead of rolling) down an inclined plane. Rolling velocity [ edit] Rolling velocity (without friction. edit] Let there be a ball on an inclined plane of angle of inclination of θ. Let the initial velocity be u and final velocity be v. Let the acceleration be a. Then, However, u = 0 and a = g. So, But, Rolling velocity (with friction. edit] Consider a rolling body down an inclined plane and the following- Mass of body = m, acceleration = a, initial velocity = u, final velocity = v, time to reach bottom = t, force imparted by body = F R = mg, frictional force = F f = µF N cos θ, net force = F. However. So, Uphill rolling [ edit] Without friction [ edit] Suppose that a rolling body is moving uphill, i. e., instead of moving down, a body strikes the base of the inclined plane, naturally, the energy carried by the body shall make it rise up to a certain height. Consider the height as h. Let the body have velocity v, accelerating at a and be of mass m. Acceleration due to gravity is g. The angle of inclination is θ. So, the hypotenuse (see figure) becomes. Now, to rise up to height h, the body must carry sufficient kinetic energy in order to work against gravity and work to move uphill. Therefore, we have: With friction [ edit] Taking into consideration the frictional forces involved, we get: References [ edit] Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert (2014) Fundamentals of Physics, Chapters 9: Wiley CS1 maint: location ( link) See also [ edit] Rolling resistance Frictional contact mechanics: Rolling contact Terrestrial locomotion in animals: Rolling Plantigrade Leg mechanism Tumbling (gymnastics) Roulette (curve) Trochoid Cycloid Gear Rack and pinion.
Top definitions related content examples explore dictionary british idioms and phrases [ roh -ling. ˈroʊ lɪŋ / noun the action, motion, or sound of anything that rolls. adjective moving by revolving or turning over and over. rising and falling in gentle slopes, as land. moving in undulating billows, as clouds or waves. rocking or swaying from side to side. turning or folding over, as a collar. producing a deep, continuous sound. Words related to rolling undulating, hilly, convolute, resounding, undulate, convoluted, lurching, rotation, involution, wheeling, volution, voluble, involuted, undulant, titubation Words nearby rolling rollerblade, rolliche, rollick, rollicking, rollicksome, rolling, rolling bearing, rolling boil, rolling friction, rolling hitch, rolling kitchen Origin of rolling 1400–50; late Middle English (gerund) see roll, ing 1, ing 2 OTHER WORDS FROM rolling rollingly, adverb Definition for rolling (2 of 2) roll verb (used without object) to move along a surface by revolving or turning over and over, as a ball or a wheel. to move or be moved on wheels, as a vehicle or its occupants. to flow or advance in a stream or with an undulating motion, as water, waves, or smoke. to extend in undulations, as land. to elapse, pass, or move, as time (often followed by on, away, or by. to move as in a cycle (usually followed by round or around) as soon as summer rolls round again. to perform a periodical revolution in an orbit, as a heavenly body. to emit or have a deep, prolonged sound, as thunder, drums, etc. to trill, as a bird. to revolve or turn over, once or repeatedly, as a wheel on an axis or a person or animal lying down. to turn around in different directions or in a circle, as the eyes in their sockets. to walk with a swinging or swaying gait. Informal. to begin to move or operate; start; commence: Let's roll at sunrise. to go forward or advance without restrictions or impediments: The economy is finally beginning to roll. to curl up so as to form a tube or cylinder. to admit of being formed into a tube or cylinder by curling up. to be spread out after being curled up (usually followed by out. to spread out as under a roller: The paint rolls easily. Aviation. (of an aircraft or rocket) to deviate from a stable flight attitude by rotation about its longitudinal axis. verb (used with object) to cause to move along a surface by revolving or turning over and over, as a cask, a ball, or a hoop. to move along on wheels or rollers; convey in a wheeled vehicle. to drive, impel, or cause to flow onward with a sweeping or undulating motion: The wind rolled the waves high on the beach. to utter or give forth with a full, flowing, continuous sound: rolling his orotund phrases. to trill: to roll one's r 's. to cause to revolve or turn over or over and over: to roll oneself on one's face. to cause to sway or rock from side to side, as a ship. to wrap (something) around an axis, around upon itself, or into a cylindrical shape, ball, or the like: to roll string. to make by forming a tube or cylinder: to roll a cigarette. to spread out flat (something curled up) often followed by out) He rolled the map out on the table. to wrap, enfold, or envelop, as in some covering: to roll a child in a blanket. to spread out, level, smooth, compact, or the like, as with a rolling pin, roller, the hands, etc. to roll dough; to roll a tennis court. to tumble (metal pieces and abrasives) in a box or barrel in such a way that their relative positions remain the same. to beat (a drum) with rapid, continuous strokes. (in certain games, as craps) to cast, or throw (dice. Printing. to apply (ink) with a roller or series of rollers. Slang. to rob, especially by going through the pockets of a victim who is either asleep or drunk. noun a document of paper, parchment, or the like, that is or may be rolled up, as for storing; scroll. a list, register, or catalog, especially one containing the names of the persons belonging to a company, class, society, etc. anything rolled up in a ringlike or cylindrical form: a roll of wire. a number of papers or other items rolled up together. a length of cloth, wallpaper, or the like, rolled up in cylindrical form (often forming a definite measure. a cylindrical or rounded mass of something: rolls of fat. some article of cylindrical or rounded form, as a molding. a cylindrical piece upon which something is rolled along to facilitate moving. a cylinder serving as a core upon which something is rolled up. a roller with which something is spread out, leveled, crushed, smoothed, compacted, or the like. Cookery. thin cake spread with jelly or the like and rolled up. a small cake of bread, originally and still often rolled or doubled on itself before baking. meat rolled up and cooked. the act or process or an instance of rolling. undulation, as of a surface: the roll of a prairie. a sonorous or rhythmical flow of words. a deep, prolonged sound, as of thunder: the deep roll of a breaking wave. the trill of certain birds, especially of the roller canary. the continuous sound of a drum rapidly beaten. a rolling motion, as of a ship. a rolling or swaying gait. Aerospace. a single, complete rotation of an airplane about the axis of the fuselage with little loss of altitude or change of direction. (of an aircraft or rocket) the act of rolling. the angular displacement caused by rolling. paper currency carried folded or rolled up: He took out an impressive roll and paid the check with a 100 bill. bankroll; funds: People were encouraged to shoot their rolls on mining speculation. (in various dice games) a single cast of or turn at casting the dice. the total number of pips or points made by a single cast; score or point. Verb Phrases roll back, to reduce (the price of a commodity, wages, etc. to a former level, usually in response to government action. roll in, Informal. to luxuriate in; abound in: rolling in money. to go to bed; retire: They would roll in later and later every night. to mix and average the cost of (a higher-priced commodity or item) with that of a cheaper one so as to increase the retail price. to add: Labor wants to roll in periodic increases with their wage demands. to arrive, especially in large numbers or quantity: When do my dividends start rolling in? roll out, to spread out or flatten: to roll out dough. to arise from bed; get up: It was nearly impossible to roll out on the first day back after vacation. Football. to execute a rollout. to introduce; unveil: a TV advertising campaign to roll out the new car. roll over, Business. to reinvest funds, especially a tax-free transfer of assets from one retirement plan to another. to overturn: The truck rolled over, and the driver hung by her seatbelt. to turn over: I rolled over in my sleep and nearly fell out of bed. roll up, to accumulate; collect: to roll up a large vote. to increase. to arrive in a conveyance: He rolled up to the front door in a chauffeur-driven limousine. Origin of roll 1175–1225; noun) in senses referring to rolled or round objects) Middle English: scroll, inscribed scroll, register, cylindrical object < Old French ro(u)lle < Latin rotulus, rotula small wheel, diminutive of rota wheel (see rotate 1, ule. in senses referring to motion) derivative of the v. v. Middle English rollen < Old French rol(l)er < Vulgar Latin *rotulare, derivative of Latin rotulus, rotula OTHER WORDS FROM roll rollable, adjective reroll, verb unrollable, adjective well-rolled, adjective WORDS THAT MAY BE CONFUSED WITH roll role roll Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2020 Examples from the Web for rolling Mullins quotes Stewart from an interview with Rolling Stone. In the same house where Rolling Stone's Jackie says she was. But after Rolling Stone's rape story debacle, how much momentum does the call to ban fraternities have left? Imagine driving through the Scottish countryside, rolling through a vast landscape of green hills and cloudy skies. This is a pope who has been rolling heads since he came to power in March 2013. She sits and drinks in his words, she feels him rolling the heavy stones from off her heart. Not the great sea, but the current that was rolling toward the island grove. Next a rolling sound such as thunder makes a long way off filled the air. Suddenly, during a flash of lightning, one of these masses was seen crashing and rolling down the mountain towards the tarantass. The horse steps on a rolling stone; a wind in the branches makes a moan. British Dictionary definitions for rolling (1 of 2) rolling adjective having gentle rising and falling slopes; undulating rolling country progressing or spreading by stages or by occurrences in different places in succession, with continued or increasing effectiveness three weeks of rolling strikes disrupted schools subject to regular review and updating a rolling plan for overseas development deeply resounding; reverberating rolling thunder slang extremely rich that may be turned up or down a rolling hat brim adverb slang swaying or staggering (in the phrase rolling drunk) British Dictionary definitions for rolling (2 of 2) roll verb to move or cause to move along by turning over and over to move or cause to move along on wheels or rollers to flow or cause to flow onwards in an undulating movement billows of smoke rolled over the ground (intr) of animals, etc) to turn onto the back and kick the hills roll down to the sea (intr) to extend in undulations the hills roll down to the sea ( intr usually foll by around) to move or occur in cycles (intr) of a planet, the moon, etc) to revolve in an orbit (intr; foll by on, by, etc) to pass or elapse the years roll by to rotate or cause to rotate wholly or partially to roll one's eyes to curl, cause to curl, or admit of being curled, so as to form a ball, tube, or cylinder; coil to make or form by shaping into a ball, tube, or cylinder to roll a cigarette ( often foll by out) to spread or cause to spread out flat or smooth under or as if under a roller to roll the lawn; to roll pastry to emit, produce, or utter with a deep prolonged reverberating sound the thunder rolled continuously to trill or cause to be trilled to roll one's r's (intr) of a vessel, aircraft, rocket, etc) to turn from side to side around the longitudinal axis Compare pitch 1 (def. 11) yaw (def. 1) to cause (an aircraft) to execute a roll or (of an aircraft) to execute a roll (sense 40) of an aircraft) to execute or cause an aircraft to execute a roll (def. 41) intr) to walk with a swaying gait, as when drunk; sway ( intr often foll by over) of an animal, esp a dog) to lie on its back and wriggle while kicking its legs in the air, without moving along (intr) to wallow or envelop oneself (in) tr) to apply ink to (type, etc) with a roller or rollers to throw (dice) intr) to operate or begin to operate the presses rolled (intr) informal to make progress; move or go ahead let the good times roll (tr) informal, mainly US and NZ to rob (a helpless person, such as someone drunk or asleep) tr) slang to have sexual intercourse or foreplay with (a person) start the ball rolling or set the ball rolling to open or initiate (an action, discussion, movement, etc) noun the act or an instance of rolling anything rolled up in a cylindrical form a roll of newspaper an official list or register, esp of names an electoral roll a rounded mass rolls of flesh a strip of material, esp leather, fitted with pockets or pouches for holding tools, toilet articles, needles and thread, etc a cylinder used to flatten something; roller a small loaf of bread for one person: eaten plain, with butter, or as a light meal when filled with meat, cheese, etc a flat pastry or cake rolled up with a meat ( sausage roll) jam ( jam roll) or other filling See also swiss roll a swell, ripple, or undulation on a surface the roll of the hills a swaying, rolling, or unsteady movement or gait a deep prolonged reverberating sound the roll of thunder a rhythmic cadenced flow of words a trilling sound; trill a very rapid beating of the sticks on a drum a flight manoeuvre in which an aircraft makes one complete rotation about its longitudinal axis without loss of height or change in direction the angular displacement of a vessel, rocket, missile, etc, caused by rolling a throw of dice a bookbinder's tool having a brass wheel, used to impress a line or repeated pattern on the cover of a book slang an act of sexual intercourse or petting (esp in the phrase a roll in the hay) US slang an amount of money, esp a wad of paper money on a roll slang experiencing continued good luck or success strike off the roll or strike off the rolls to expel from membership to debar (a solicitor) from practising, usually because of dishonesty Word Origin for roll C14 rollen, from Old French roler, from Latin rotulus a little wheel, from rota a wheel Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012 Idioms and Phrases with rolling roll In addition to the idioms beginning with roll roll around roll back roll in rolling stone roll in the aisles roll in the hay roll out roll over roll the bones roll up roll up one's sleeves roll with the punches also see: easy as pie (rolling off a log) get rolling get the ball rolling heads will roll on a roll red carpet The American Heritage Idioms Dictionary Copyright 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
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